DALNY, A FIAT-CITY

Clarence Cary
Scribners Magazine 33 (April 1903):482-493.

All but forgotten now by historians of town planning, at the dawn of the Twentieth Century Dalny received deserved attention throughout the world. This city, planned by Russians as a major Asian seaport at the eastern end of the Trans-Siberian Railway, sprang into existence with such speed that anything written about it was certain to be substantially out of date by the time it appeared in print. The several photographs in this article must have been taken in late 1902 and represent work completed since 1899 when the Russian Tsar ordered the project to be undertaken. The Dalny described below is the modern Dalian, the seaport in South Liaoning Province located in northeastern China--the region once known under Japanese domination as Manchuria. The population is now more than 1.6 million.
 

"One sees by it that each section has been planned to serve a special purpose. Everything has been segregated. In the commercial city a building to be used as an auction hall and exchange is in the centre, and surrounding it are private banks, the Russo-Chinese Bank, a town club, a theatre, the Judges's office, a Post and telegraph office, the Police Office, and the offices of the Town Council. Slightly to the east are the Mayor's office, the quarters of the military employes, the Mayor's residence, and the boys' and girls's museums. Still further east are the private residences for Europeans.

"To the northwest is the Administration Town, which contains the railroad shops for making cars, &c., railway repair shops, steampship-construction and repair shops, port, steamship, and railway headquarters and offices, residences of mechanics and general employes, and a Russian church.

"Some distance away to the southwest of the commercial quarters, is the Chinese native city, and, it is worthy of notice, that the Market Hall has been placed about midway between the European and Chinese cities, so as to be easily accessible from both."

It is not yet a common thing in the line of human endeavor to evolve a seaport, railway terminal city, with all the essential modern appliances, including ample provision for future residence, trading, and manufacturing facilities, before the advent of an expected population. Dalny, the new and chief commercial terminus of the great Trans-Siberian Railway System Oil the North China Pacific Coast, is unique in this respect as well as otherwise important and interesting.(1)


A Group of Administration Buildings.


A Bit of the Residence Quarter; Bay in distance at top on left.

The present article embodies the essential notes of a personal investigation made on the spot in August last, and in a presentment of them the accompanying illustrations may happily do much of the explanation, or so to say, speak for themselves. Dalny, the name of which in the Russian tongue signifies. "Far Away," was thus picturesquely entitled from its apparent remoteness to the geographical standpoint of St. Petersburg at the time of its inception. It owes its existence to the will of the Russian Emperor, who, in I 1899 by an Imperial Oukas decreed, apropos of certain then recent arrangements with the Bogdo-Khan (or Emperor) of China concerning an outlet for the Trans-Siberian Railway connections on the Yellow Sea, that this new city should be established on the shores of Talienwan (Bay) as a port "to be opened to the fleets of all nations."

With what result, may be gathered from the photographs which are here reproduced, from the circumstance that sundry millions of roubles have since been effectively devoted to the work thus pictured, and from the further fact that in less than three years there is now already nearing completion a measurably adequate ocean terminal for the vast and magnificent creations of His Majesty's remoter Empire, known as the Trans-Siberian, the Chinese Eastern, and the Trans-Manchurian railways.


Typical House of Dalny Official

But here, however, before proceeding further with the discussion of Dalny, it may be well to supply a few words of explanation concerning these railways, and the system that includes them; the new harbor-town being an outer gate-way, or sally-port, so to speak, of Russia's impregnable occupation, and of her advance in the Farther-Eastern world: a movement which might seem appropriately to bear the device "Russie-Réussie" upon its triumphant banners.


The Governor's House

And yet the "Great Siberian Railway," as the Russians call it, can hardly need much description now that it has become a stupendous fact, and as such largely figures in every-day literature. Briefly, it was begun in 1891, when the then Tsarevich, who is now the Emperor, laid the first stone of its construction at Vladivostock on the Pacific coast; has since been finished sufficiently to admit of unbroken rail-connection--except as to the Lake Baikal crossing--from its China-coast terminals back to the older Russian systems at Moscow, and covers, with the Manchurian lines above referred to, more than twice the distance between New York and San Francisco.


From Ship to Shore. The Chief Eastern Terminal of the Trans- Siberian.

One of the four Far-Eastern ends of this considerable line, and indeed what is prospectively the chief one of its system, may be noted, in the illustration [above]..., as it reaches and fringes Dalny's docks in readiness for the handy service of freight and passengers. The other Pacific-coast terminals lie respectively some forty-five miles to the southwest, at Russia's formidable naval and military stronghold, Port Arthur; at Vladivostock, about 600 miles up the Pacific coast to the northeastward, and at Inkou near Newchwang, some 150 miles to the north and west, where the Gulf of Petcheli is conveniently reached, on the inner-side of the Liau-Tong Peninsula.

These effective constructions, with what their presence implies, are sufficiently imposing in themselves, but their continuous rail and river connections back into the far spaces of Siberia and Europe stagger the imagination in reach and potentiality, and require as well a fairly comprehensive geographical knowledge to be accurately followed out even with the aid of a map.(2)


Interior City Park; a "Breathing" space for later needs.

Small wonder then that the Russian railway accomplishments of such relatively remote regions, and the marvellous speed with which they have come about, should have startled the world, and in especial waked-up our British friends, as well as sorely depressed their spirits; since these latter, although here facing what is as reasonable as it is inevitable, have the care of their neighboring India frontier, as well as a prospectively waning North China trade-predominance, ever on their minds.

Among their own chief writers, Mr. Colquboun is found to remark, touching the Trans-Siberian, that it is "no longer a purely internal enterprise...it has become the world's highway from West to East a route which is to bring the vast map of China for the first time into intimate touch with Europe...it now promises to develop into one of the greatest arteries of traffic the world has ever seen..... Still more assured is the prosperity of the line as a great international undertaking."

And Mr. Norman: "Since the Great Wall of China, the world has seen no material undertaking of equal magnitude. That Russia should have conceived it and carried it out makes imagination falter for her future influence upon the course of human events."


A Busy Thoroughfare of the Future

In the face of these competent opinions, the justice of which will be borne out by all careful observers, it is safe to say that Dalny, as the chief conduit of future commerce for the great railways here concerned, will soon acquire more consequence than it now enjoys in the consideration of the outside world; will cease, indeed, to be to most of us a mere geographical expression of doubtful whereabouts. Far away though Dalny may have originally seemed to its projectors both in respect of distance and completion, it now looms large on the horizon, and whether to the people of western Russia, or to us of the hither Pacific shore the name must presently lose this former significance in our easy, modern methods of intercommunication.

Even now, the possibilities of conveniently reaching the place by the railway in a ten day's journey from Moscow, or one of but a trifle more by steamer from San Francisco, are safely to the fore, and there is a rising tide of travel waiting to make it one of the familiar four corners of the world.


Shore-front, Talien Bay and Dock-work

Under the existing arrangements, the great Manchurian sections of the Trans-Siberian System, aggregating some 1,800 miles of track, and including the Trans-Manchurian branch from Harbin on the main Port Arthur, or Dalny line, to Dalny's twin Pacific terminal Vladivostock, are operated by the Kitaiskaya Vostocnaya Jeleznaya Doroga, or "Chinese Eastern Iron-road," a Chino-Russian company enjoying full leasehold rights for the necessary tracks and terminals in that province.

And it is this company that has been charged with the creation of Dalny, and as yet stands as the ultimate landlord in its affairs, the construction being still in the hands of its engineers and other officials, although the fee of the town lots is salable, and the future control and maintenance of the municipality to be presently delegated to a "Council of Rate-payers" to be formed in somewhat incomplete analogy to that of the Foreign Concessions of Shanghai.

The interesting work thus in hand is now deemed to have sufficiently progressed to admit of at least tentative sales or leasings to the desired and expected outsiders, and to justify a transfer of the railway and steamship offices, administration-staff and headquarters generally of the China ends of the Trans-Siberian System from Port Arthur and Harbin to the new city.

Mr. Miller's report sufficiently explains the general scope of the enterprise, the conditions of sales or leases of lots, etc., but there are more recent publications, in English and other languages, which may show sundry modifications of the regulations in the latter regard. And notices of the dates of the proposed sales and leasings are to appear from time to time in the newspapers of New York and other larger cities throughout the world. This article will rather seek to indicate the underlying plans of the new municipality, its larger functions and management questions, with perhaps the hazard of a prediction as to future results and influence.

On the first of these points, the Russians, it may be said, are generally pursuing a wise and liberal policy, and show not only great foresight, but also that sensible quality which is manifested in an ability to profit by the experience and mistakes of others.

Thus, while prudently discouraging mere speculators, or such persons as do not propose to reside as well as build in the town, they invite the presence and participation of all nationalities, even opening the local doors to the Jews who can here freely buy and own property, as they may not do in other territory under Russian control. That the natives are likewise welcomed, goes without saying, since everywhere in Asia these must necessarily supply the foundation of any successful trading community, and since the Russians generally admit the Chinese to a more kindly intimacy--and thus to a better understanding--than do any of the other foreigners who are settled along the Asian Pacific coast.

But in this instance, the multitudinous poorer classes of the indigenous folk are not to swarm among the foreign residents as they have elsewhere been imprudently suffered to do, being, instead, held conveniently aloof from the main city by an intervening park, a precaution the manifold advantages of which will be readily appreciated by those who know the unpleasant and detrimental grouillement of the British colony of Hong-Kong and of the foreign Concessions of Shanghai

Then, too, Dalny is, by its fundamental charter--the Imperial Oukas above referred to--to be and to remain a free port as to customs charges, and moreover will otherwise be relieved to the utmost practicable extent from those harassing dock and harbor dues which elsewhere commonly obtain; an exemption of prime consequence in that scheme of paramount attractiveness which here is expected to allure both shipping and manufacturing commerce, and which is supported by the already suggested local conditions of thoroughly up-to-date and adequate facilities, plus a fine and wholesome climate, easy access, and ample supply of cheap fuel and labor.

The presence of the railway in the new port should alone sufficiently insure a large shipping trade, but the astute Dalny managers are looking for more than this, expecting, as they confidently do, and apparently with excellent reason, that the ample shores of Talien Bay will soon be dotted with manufacturies, drawn from the world over to avail of an exceptionally economical assemblage and manufacture of raw materials, for whatever market, there or elsewhere, the resultant product may be designed.

Such materials, it will be observed, may always enter and depart in freedom, with handy rail and ocean shipping facilities, as well as a local labor-supply which is unhampered by fantastic union complications, and as reasonably constant in quantity as it is in extreme moderation of cost. Should the manufactured products thus resulting be destined for Manchurian or other adjacent outlets beyond the limits of the Dalny district, the usual Chinese tariffs may be locally paid (possibly with complete safeguards against vexatious Likin, or inland-barrier taxes). So, too, if the shippers' aim should concern the great markets which are presently to follow the current developments in Siberia, or even those of nearly equal expansive possibilities farther on in Russia itself, an economical transfer may be made by rail, in bond, through any intervening Chinese territory with no greater burden than the usual Russian tariff, this likewise being subject to convenient local adjustment. And to this end, consular agencies appropriate for these as for other countries are to be duly established in Dalny. What the demands of the outside world may prove to be for such manufactures must remain to he seen, but in this respect the goods need encounter only the moderate handicap of ocean-transit rates; the trade concerning them generally being conducted under circumstances wherein a cheapness of first-cost should prove of dominant advantage in competition with rival products from less favored manufactories.

A glance at the panoramic photograph reproduction(3) [above]...will give a fair idea of the area of the splendid bay which supplies the facilities for thus grouping the expected industries, the loop-railways designed to augment these ample water-connections being readily imaginable. Here also may be discerned the outlines of an elaborate dock and jetty system, with ample break-water enclosures, and modern loading and discharging devices already well in hand and nearing readiness for safe and prompt accommodations of that extensive traffic which must inevitably seek an ocean terminus of over 7,000 miles of railway; especially where, as here, such railway affords the shortest and best highway of communication between the more highly developed of the greater sections of the world.


New Jetty Construction and Filling Work. Visiting War-ships in the Bay

That Dalny, in addition to her facilities for the loading and discharging of vessels, will enjoy equally full convenience for their repair, and even for their construction is; a matter of course in a project so thorough-going as this; and there may likewise be seen in the picture [below]...a completed dry-dock (of 375 feet in length and eighteen feet on the sill) with the beginnings of another which is designed to accommodate the largest ocean-going ships.


Dalny's Lesser Dry-Dock

So far, the constructors of the new city, in addition to their preparations for the residence, manufacturing, and trading facilities above referred to, have thus addressed themselves chiefly to the construction of docks and shipping accommodation. It is believed that a large trade must speedily accrue to the port by reason of the presence there of the railway, and indeed that the principal Trans-Pacific steamer lines of all nations will ultimately make Dalny their most important Far Eastern port-of all, whatever they may intermediately continue to do with Yokohama and Nagasaki, and whatever may be their existing affiliations with Shanghai or Hong-Kong Mr. Miller's report suggests that the Canadian Pacific Company has already prudently reached out for Dalny's connection service. Where, then, in this new and promising field, are the big American lines; the great steamers of the Hill railways; the Pacific Mail, and the Occidental and Oriental ships of San Francisco, or the minor freight-carriers of the Puget Sound Ports? That these will all soon be on the lookout hereaway is probable (however little one hears or sees of any of them as yet on Dalny's horizon), and would seem to be an inevitable necessity of the geographical and economic situation when Dalny gets a-going.

To return, however, to our more immediate subject, there are many features besides the docks and shipping facilities which deserve attention in the Dalny scheme.

Some of the more material of these are measurably indicated by the illustrations: enough to show, in a general way, how it has already been demonstrated that the manifold requirements of modern city construction may be created at demand, and in double-quick order, by the exercise of an alert and intelligent foresight, backed with a generous purse. The pictures, however, can scarcely express such details as the already created wide, well-paved, sewered and guttered streets or roads; public parks, stone and brick administration and other buildings, hospitals, hygienic water-supply, electric-lighting plant, tramways--the latter presently to include an extension to a bathing-beach of the future--or, in short, all that nowadays goes by the term of "public utilities." Nor can the pictures indicate the curious fact that these have been made or are nearing completion on a scale suitable for comfortable use and economical maintenance of a considerable population which is yet to appear.

 1. The length of streets in European town is 25,960 sajen. 2. Area of Building spaces; the Villa Part, 236,500 squares: the Civil Part, 186,600 squares; in Administrative Town, 57,000 squares. 3. Garden Squares and Nursery, 375,860 squares. Principal Buildings; a, Russo-Chinese Bank; k, Post and Telegraph Offices; l, Theatre; m. Private Bank; n, Police and Fire Brigade Station; o, Town Offices; p. Town club; q, Town Auction Hall and Exchange; r. Private Bank; s, Law Courts; t, Private Bank; u, Covered Market; x, High School for Boys; y, High School for Girls; z Workingmen's Dwellings. N.B.--1 square sajen=490 feet.
In most of these respects the plan [above]...may be of service, but even this will not suffice to indicate an important fact which those of us accustomed to job ridden municipalities can scarcely appreciate, viz.: that all these good and useful things are presently to be turned over to the coming citizens free and clear of all aldermanic jobs or ineptitudes, on highly favorable terms, and under ample security for their safe and profitable future enjoyment. That such prospective citizens will presently materialize from everywhere about the world, is both expected and desired by the Russian authorities; for the theory of Dalny's future and thoroughly adequate protection has been wisely based upon a wide-spread international investment to be thus created therein.


Dalny's Solid Jetty Construction
 
And hence, although Port Arthur, which is only some forty miles away, like other adjacent points that command the railways outside the extensive district allotted to the new town and harbor, and as well those farther on in Manchuria, may fairly bristle with guns, or swarm with capable Cossacks, there is not to be the slightest suggestion of military safeguard present or contemplated at Dalny. Just here, the astute Russians are borrowing a leaf from the experience of Shanghai, which, under like conditions, has been able to summon the fleets and troops of the outside great powers to her aid in time of stress, and this too without thereby encountering an unpleasant expense-account. Per contra, the nearby German creation of Tsintau, on Kiao-chou Bay, lies open to inspection as an object-lesson, and is an example of what the Dalnians have prudently sought to avoid. Here a proposed commercial town, though admirably constructed and possessing the necessary deep-water access to docks (and even a railway back to good coal, with likewise a possible future freight connection), is found cheek-by-jowl with a military stronghold, where it must forever stand or fall, or be perturbed, according to the fate of its adjacent fortifications; its trade development meanwhile suffering the blight of militarismus in the usual tightly buttoned form.

Dalny thus on the one hand advantaged, and on the other free, would seem fairly equipped to enter on a career of safe and unimpeded development. What are her present or prospective rivals for the commercial supremacy of the future along the China coasts?

Of these, the great entrepots of Hong Kong and Shanghai, now, of course, stand far-and-away in the front, with the nearer neighbors Tientsin and Newchwang well up in present importance; but each and all of these are handicapped by a heavy charge of lightering transshipments, not to speak of crowded or insufficient "bunds" or water-fronts; the three ports last-mentioned having to deal also with ever-vexing and costly problems of comparatively narrow rivers and their shifting bars. Hong-Kong enjoys no railway, while Tientsin and Newchwang, although somewhat better off in this respect, must encounter closed seasons of ice; the latter settlement having a trade too, which, following an inevitable economic law, must sooner or later largely forsake the river for a more certain railway outlet to and from the sea. Ch'in-wang-tao, a new, neighboring, enclosed port, near Shan-hai-knan, on the Gulf of Petcheli, will probably have both handy railway facilities and ice-free conditions, and therefore offers promise, although, as yet, rather a potentiality than a factor in the race.


Front of Sunken Railways Tracks.

To say that Dalny's development has been, or will continue, wholly free from mistakes, or that her future presents no difficulties, would be beyond the mark; tantamount perhaps to a contention that counsels of perfection are implicitly followed in human affairs. Thus, there are here and there features on which the severely practical criticism of the American point of view may fasten, such, for example, as an apparent confusion or division of authority in management, and as well unnecessary expenditure in premature improvements. On the side of policy, there would still appear to be some ambiguity as to the unrestricted functions of the proposed rate-payer's governing-council, and as to whether if there must be at final appeal in purely local affairs, where this body is concerned, the same is to run, as it should do, to the civil rather than to the military arm of Russian supervision. Again, there is here of course no lack of Prophets of Evil--generally in the shape of jealous neighbors, such as some of those at Port Arthur and Vladivostock--who whether from malice or timidity fill the air with dismal vaticinations, like other obstructors elsewhere that seek to block the way of progress with inertia--often, fortunately for the rest of us, only to be finally worsted, as Stephenson's well-known "Coo" would have been. If we are to believe the fantastic notions of these myopes, it would appear that Dalny is already a failure; that it will be impossible to work ships past vaguely conjured rocks and icepacks into the harbor; that no one anyhow will care to settle there, and, in short, that the sponge of a considerate oblivion and abandonment had best be wiped over the entire project, and a return made, while there is yet time, to some other place or places more favored by, or favoring to the particular objector of the moment.

But Dalny seems to have come to stay, nevertheless, and Mr. Witte, the famous Finance Minister of the Imperial Russian Government, who is generally credited with knowing his way about, has recently visited it and affixed thereto the seal of his potent approval(4) That we of the United States should give the new city and all it stands for, cordial greeting, and wish it God-speed and success in its career, seems to be plain enough, whether we look at the subject on business or on sentimental grounds, supposing for the moment that the latter view may nowadays be suffered to figure in the dominating presence of trade considerations and in international affairs.

But even if we exclude all kindly sentiments, and incidentally assume that memories of various substantial past Russian attentions in our behalf (including their nominal-priced transfer of that fruitful cadeau Alaska) may be tossed aside, as in the way when an "enlightened self-interest" occupies the floor, it will be of value to consider where this latter motive would guide us in North Asian affairs.

Here, we find Russia busily opening up markets for us throughout Siberia--a region alone greater in extent than the United States, to say nothing of Manchuria, or Russia proper--contrasted with which our existing trade outlets in these vast areas are but trifling beginnings; markets, too, that may be as easily commanded and retained by us for many years to come through the exercise of ordinary neighborly consideration, as they might readily be prejudiced by our whimsical rudeness or neglect. For here, at least, the "party of the other part" in the trade is one to which sentiment does appeal, and the case peculiarly of a kind in which the sting of rejected advances may have ample scope for quick severe and concrete application.

Our British cousins, lacking our own independent position and our agreeable market prospects hereabouts, with ever before their eyes the certain bogy-scares above referred to, may fume over Russia's triumphant progress, or our erstwhile proteges, the Japanese, continue (for other reasons, but with equal futility), to "kick against the pricks;" but what have we of the United States of America to do in either of their galères?

As for the Chinese, here again how are we concerned? The arrangements with their Russian neighbors are clearly their own affair, and not ours, especially seeing that thus far no abridgment of any of our antecedent treaty-port rights, which might otherwise be sought to be asserted as against the Middle Kingdom, has arisen in consequence thereof. With this as the fact, the law, and the equity of the existing situation, would it not seem to be preeminently one in which Americans should prudently heed the pregnant maxim as to minding one's own business? The more so, as we may thereby readily find such business growing with rapid strides and profitable results, thanks not only to the good-will and needs of our Russian friends, but to the new railways and outlets of which their port of Dalny is to be to us the front, and in this case, wide open door?

Returning now for a final word about Dalny, it should be admitted that when visited in August last there was difficulty in recognizing either its forwardness or that ultimate importance which is here suggested. The long empty roads, scaffolded buildings, and up-turned surfaces had rather an air of inchoate desolation; and the scene generally, the somewhat melancholy expression which is a concomitant of dishevelled habitation-places wherever an appropriate sum of human life and endeavor is lacking, whether because this is yet to come, or has had its little day. In the matter of climate there was nothing further to demand, with the atmosphere and sunshine then prevailing, thanks to a somewhat belated rainy season; for these were simply magnificent in tone and quality, and suggested the best periods of our Northern summers on the Maine or Nova Scotia coasts. That the climate, except for a steady but brief downpour during the rains of midsummer, is uniformly fine (with a quality of air too bracing perhaps to suit some wakeful persons), seems to be the universal testimony; and even the sharp, clear cold of the winters is said to be of a highly agreeable nature. As to malaria and mosquitoes, these, although not wholly unknown, are inconsiderable factors, attributable by general report to the inevitable but temporary upturning of things during construction; and indeed it would appear to be quite likely that Dalny, with its cool, equable summers, must become a much sought and desirable resort for the people of the southern coasts or of the tropical regions of Asia generally.

In any event, it is there that we shall presently transfer ourselves and our belongings, between ship and shore, in the 'round-the-world concerns of trade or travel; and whether it thus affords a first contact with triste and mysterious China, or precedes a like essay of the long rollers of the wide Pacific, some thrill of interest must ever thereafter be associated in our minds with the new port.

"Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut bimarisve Corinthi moenia." But Dalny and what it typifies are both as impressive and commanding.

1. The principal features of this curious fiat-city have already been discussed in an excellent official report by Mr. Henry B. Miller, the United States Consul at Newchwang (under date of September 29, 1900; published as Number 1, 291, of March 17, 1901, by the Bureau Foreign Commerce of the Department of State at Washington); but a description is now possible with the aid of fresher details and recent photographs, as the evolution of the place has since materially advanced.

2. For those who seek further information concerning the Trans-Siberian Railway, its connections, present condition, service, etc., the writer ventures to refer to the account of his recent journey over the line (published by the New York Evening Post Job Printing office). Mr. Henry Norman's recent valuable work, "All the Russias," deals with the subject on a larger and more comprehensive scale, although from less recent contact with the railway and its rapid changes. As to Manchuria, its character, trade, resources, etc., including the preliminaries of railways therein, Mr. Alexander Hosie's interesting volume ("Manchuria," etc., London, 1901) is a complete authority.

3. The writer begs to express thus his acknowledgments to Mr. Saharoff, the Governor and Chief of Engineering Construction, and to Messrs. Trenuhen and Soper, of the Engineering staff, for many civilities shown him while at Dalny, and as well for the photographs and various details of information.

4. Late advices from there indicate that the recent visit of Mr. Witte has caused a renewed flow of appropriations for, and consequent greater activity in, the work of completion; that many obstructive questions have now been settled by him; that the land-sales and leasings which began November 14th with most favorable prices, will be continued as fast as may be practicable, although foreigners, apparently through misunderstanding of the conditions affecting the same, have thus far rather held aloof; that private house-building operations are now expected to make speedy progress; that the important thoroughfares are already lighted electrically, and the harbor buoys with gas; that ships of 18 feet draft are alongside the docks, and a further stretch of stone-wharf of 3,000 feet in length (with 28 feet low-water depth) nearly completed for them; that cargoes of tea from Hankow, which formerly went by sea to Russia via Odessa, have been received and forwarded by the railway, and finally that preferential rates by the latter in favor of the port, together with other substantial inducements to attract foreign trade, are now actively under consideration or arrangement.  


Selected, scanned, edited, provided with headnotes, and formatted as a web document by John W. Reps, Professor Emeritus, Department of City and Regional Planning, West Sibley Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. Tel: (607) 255-5391, Fax: (607) 255-6681, E-mail: jwr2@cornell.edu 
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