Nils Gellerstedt
Typescript in Australian Archives, ACT, Series A762

Nils Otto Gellerstedt (1875-1961) was born in Örebro, Sweden on July 6, 1875. He attended school there before studying civil engineering at the technical institute in Göteborg in 1894­98. After his graduation he worked in the public works office of the City of Stockholm (Stockholm Stads Byggnadskontor) through 1901. The following year he established a firm, Kommunaltekniska Bryan (Office for Local Government Engineering), for the practice of engineering, a profession in which he was still active in 1945.

Throughout his career he was engaged in a variety of urban planning projects, including prize­wining entries in a number of city planning competitions prior to 1912. His entry with Torben Grut, an architect, won second prize for a plan for Göteborg in 1901. Gellerstedt and architect Axel Bergman won first prize in the competition for Hälsingborg held in 1906. In 1908 he received first prize in the Trollhättan competition, and he won second prizes for his plan for the Katarina area of Stockholm in 1909 and Trondheim, Norway in 1910.

He later won a prize in a competition for Tönsberg, Norway in 1920. Gellerstedt also served as one of the judges at other competitions: the rebuilding plan for Bergen, Norway following a major fire in 1917, and a competition for the central portion of Oslo. Although his entry in the Australian capital competition was not a prize­winner, his design was the third choice of the minority judge.

In his long professional career he was responsible for preparing city­wide or partial plans for more than one hundred cities and towns. They included Aksersund, Falun, Falkenberg, Hudiksvall, Laholm, Lidingö, Linköping, Lindesberg, Ludvika, Lysekil, Mjölby, Nora, Norrtälje, Sala, Skänninge, Sollefteå, Sundsvall, Säter, Söderhamm, Ulricehamm, Varberg, Väkjö, Örnsköldsvik, and Östersund.

Gellerstedt served on the transportation commission for Stockholm from 1909 to 1920 and was a member of the Stockholm city planning commission and the city traffic committee in 1921 and 1922. He wrote a number of articles in technical journals on planning and bridge construction and was highly regarded as one of the pioneers of city planning in the early decades of the twentieth century.

In 1960 Gellerstedt gave his collection of maps, surveys, and other material to the Royal Library of Sweden. This donation included about fifty of his city plans. Among them was his colored city plan for Canberra on the large, 1 inch to 400 feet, four­sheet contour map that all competitors received.

In preparing his competition entry he had two "collaborators": Ivan Lindgren & Hugo du Rietz. Of them nothing seems to be known except that a contemporary journal mentioned that du Rietz was an Australian from Queensland.

Photograph of the proposal
Documents sent in Page

Chapter I. General Views:
Object of the competition
Leading Principles

II. Planning and grouping of the various
parts of the city:
General contours of the territory
Railway lines
Distribution of the various quarters
The City
Amusement City
Public Buildings
Industrial and Military areas
Residential Quarter
Other districts
The territory forming the criteron for the project

III. The character of the plan of the city for the different parts of the same.

The City
Pleasure City
Public Buildings
Industrial areas
Military Barracks
Residential quarters
Secondary Centres
Size of Public Buildings
Width of Streets
Names of Streets

IV. Detailed description of the various parts of the city
The City
Pleasure City
Municipal Buildings
Government Buildings
Central Parks and Plantations
Governor General's Residence
Residential quarters proper
Military Barracks
Race Tracks and Aerodrome
Industrial Districts
Cental Parks and Plantations
Zoological Gardens
Exhibition Grounds
Widening the river
Botanical Gardens
Other Parks
Sport and other grounds
Other Sport grounds

Chapter V. Transito-Technical Views:
Main-line railways
Railway arrangements
Main Streets
Tramway Lines

Chapter VI. Aesthetical Points of View.
Central distributions of City Quarters Buildings
from Aesthetical Point of View
Squares and other open spaces
Laying out of Streets
Profiles of Streets
Residential Streets

Chapter VII. Method of Building.
The City and its Skyscrapers
Laying out and Planting of Court Yards
Industrial Districts
Residential districts

Chapter VIII. Plans and views of well known Cities brought together in plate 4, compared with different parts of the competition.
Sewerage system and Sanitary arrangements
Starting Point
Statements in Programme
Chief Clause of Competition

Drawing showing the tramway system.
Conditions of Competition.

The following documents are sent in:

A. Description amounting to 44 pages with photograph of the proposal and drawing showing the tramway system.
B. The following drawings:
Plate 1. Main Proposal on a scale of 400 feet to the inch = 1:4800 sketched in the Contour - map sent.
Plate 2 Drawing showing the centre of Federal Capital on a larger scale, viz. 150 feet to the inch = 1:1800, and giving alternative proposals showing details that could not be given in the main proposal.
Plate 3 Three perspectives in water colour, carefully constructed on the lines of the main proposal and illustrating the following sections:
(a) Commercial Street with the Houses of Parliament in the background;
(b) Railway Square with the Court of Justice showing the first impression of the city on arrival at the Railway Station, and
(c) The city seen from the Governor General's Palace.
Plate 4 Drawing showing plans from notable cities on the same scale as the main drawing, as well as some views collected to illustrate the projected competition.
Plate 5 A summary of the following three drawings:
(a) Reduced copy of the main proposal showing the thoroughfares with the railway lines;
(b) Proposal for drainage system, sketched on a reduced copy of the main proposal;
(c) A sketched drawing of the tramway system.

Chapter 1.
G E N E R A L V I E W S.
Object of the Competition.
The task put before the competitor is of quite an unusual character, and of a rather exacting nature. He is expected to plan the Capital of a whole Continent from the very beginning, a thing that has rarely been done in more modern times. The question is to try and map out the future capital of Australia in such a manner that the prospective inhabitants will have plenty of elbow room and be able to breathe freely and to let the different parts of the city with their buildings, both public and private, grow up in a natural and harmonious manner and in such a way that everything be put in its proper place. To make a long story short, we wish to enable future city-builders to carry out and develope the ideas indicated by the competition by means of the plan of the city itself. We wish to leave an inheritance to coming generations, such an inheritance as will not place any obstacles in the way of unknown possibilities of development of future cities; and inheritance which shall leave a record for unborn generations of the standard of civilisation of our period.

Leading Principles.
In elaborating the proposal, the thought of the Federal Capital becoming truly the Capital of Australia served as the guiding principle. Already in projecting the plan of the city care has to be taken that such a plan from an expression of the conditions of the country. The town must be planned in such a manner that its inhabitants feel themselves at home; that they feel that in the joint capital they are in the very heart of the country.

This must not be a copy of any of the old cities of England or Scotland, with their narrow streets and houses crowded together. Nor must it be planned on the lines of the large American cities, with their wildernesses of bricks and mortar. Still less must it pay tribute to the German tendency of building modern cities after medieval patterns. The Federal Capital must be a "Model city." In planning the same all the resources at the command of the artist in modern town-planning ought to be brought into use; but the plan must not exclusively emanate from any theoretical principles. A lesson ought certainly be learned from everything good and beautiful that has been done in various parts of the world; but no slavish imitation must be observed. In the planning of the city we must start from the premises that the Capital is to be a modern city with modern means of communications; with business quarters in the centre, public buildings well situated and the residential quarters easily accessible, grouped round about upon the hill slopes, but separated from the city by means of parks and plantations.

In a few words: the city shall be planned in such a manner that when it has grown up along the lines indicated in the plan, the Australian people shall have good reason to boast that their Capital is certainly not the largest, but on the other hand, "the finest city in the world."

Chapter II
Planning and grouping of the various parts of the city

General contours of the territory.
If we study the territory upon which the future Federal Capital of Australia is to arise we shall soon find the following main features to be taken into account in planning the city.

The Molonglo River, with a width of from 50 to 100 yards, winds with many bends and turns from east to west right through the area. According to a statement in the programme the river will by means of suitable dams be supplied with water all the year round. Through special regulating devices outside the city area proper, inundations will be avoided, and the water-level kept practically constant. By this means the Molonglo River will become one of the best regulated rivers in Australia, with its green shady banks, its pellucid surface in the centre of the city and its charming waterfalls at the dams. It will become a thing of pleasure and delight to the city and its inhabitants. The ares between the river-bed, and the shore line of the great inundation of the year 1891 might suitably be utilised for parks, sports grounds and similar objects, not for residence and public buildings so as to reduce the risk of accidents in case the regulating dams should give way or be unable, on some occasions or other, of not confining the river within its beds. Looked at as a whole, the territory of the city area rises from the said river valley at about 1800 feet above sea level in a north-westerly direction towards Black Mountains (2658 ft.) to the north-east as far as Anslia (2762 ft.) towards the south is Red Hill (2368 ft.) a spur of the Mugga Mugga (2662 ft.) situated outside the city area. There are also various minor hills such as Shale (1950 ft.) in the west the heights of Stony Hill (1995 ft.), Rockey Hill (1980)ft.) and Granite Boulders (2,065 ft.) in the east. Within the more central parts of the city area there are several hills of interest, in which connection the horse-shoe-shape hill (1890 ft.) north of the river, called Parliament Hill in this description, and rising to height of 80 ft. above the lower land in the interior of the horse-shoe, is to be noticed.

South of the river we have a comparatively level area where the business quarter proper ought to be planned, and south of this latter, a group of hills called Stoney Hills on the map and with triangulation stations called Quarry, Gap, Kurrajong, Camp Hill, etc., varying in height 1865 ft. and 2005 feet.

Railway line.
In planning the city as a whole the first consideration is to carefully utilize the possibilities of the territory and to locate the various parts of the city and the buildings upon those areas best suitable for the purpose. We shall then soon discover that the railway line indicated on the programme map has been chiefly staken out from a railway point of view and ought not to be retained. The line might run a little further to the west without increasing the cost of the building, and by this means the advantage would be gained that the interesting horse-shoe-shaped Parliament Hill would not be spoiled by the Railway, and also sufficient space would be soquired for the business quarter proper, which for practical reasons has been located upon fairly level ground, but yet not upon such low lying ground that an inundation may be feared there. These conditions can only be fulfilled by an area situated centrally and immediately south of the river, forming a square with about 3000 feet frontage.

The railway ought not of course to pass through this area, but just about touch it, and the Central Station ought to be close by.

After we have thus settled the position of the railway and the business quarter, the "City", the question arises; how are the different parts of the city to be distributed and grouped with regard to the hints given by the territory on the whole, and in detail; and how are the transit facilities between the various parts of the city to be regulated.

Distribution of the various quarters
In a modern city distinction is made between the city areas, each one having its special functions. Now-a-days, we do not permit buildings of different kinds, such as are used for business, residential, and industrial purposes to be erected side by side in a city, but the tendency is more and more in the direction of appointing business and manufacturing their own, special quarters and to separate residential quarters entirely from them, making them easily accessable through good communications, but shut off from the din, smoke, and unpleasantness of the business and industrial districts. For in planning a city from the beginning its various functions and different quarters demanded thereby ought to be clearly and distinctly indicated in the plan.

The City
The real kernel of the town, "The City", is in the first instance intended for different kinds of business. Banks, Insurance Companies and wholesale and retail businesses are to have their domiciles here as well as public and semi-public buildings which must be centrally situated as City Hall, some Churches, Market Halls, Arcades etc., besides which a special part of the city ought to be set aside for amusements, such as Theatres, Restaurants, Clubs, Museums etc. {Amusement City}

Public Buildings
In a city like this where many public buildings both for Government ("The Commonwealth") and Municipal requirements are to be erected, separate quarters have been allocated for this purpose; the building thereof ought certainly to be centrally situated, but yet separated from the noise and strife, bustle and worry of the city, forming quiet and stately, uniformly treated, imposing quarters by themselves, situated upon high ground and surrounded by parks and plantations. Both from practical reasons with regard to communications and cooperations between the various Government and Municipal buildings and with regard to the monumental effect and the effect as a whole it will be advisable to unit these great Government and Municipal buildings into separate quarters.

The part of the city or group of buildings to be erected by the Government, and which includes the Houses of Parliament, various public offices and Parliamentary Library has therefore been located upon the magnificent, arched Parliament Hill which seems to have been made for the purpose, besides which premises for the Mint and Government Printing Works have also been proposed close by.

Finally, sites for the Governor-General's and the Prime Minister's residences have been proposed upon a height well suited for the purpose and surrounded by parks. The quarters for the Municipal building has been located to the pretty hills south of the city, where excellent sites are to be found for schools and hospitals, besides which picturesque situations will be obtained for the Law Court and the State House.

Industrial and Military areas
A fairly large area, situated on level ground and with railway facilities, has to be set aside for industrial purposes. Likewise another area of a similar nature will be required for barracks, drill grounds and rifle ranges. There are only two such areas, viz. in the south west and north and they have therefore been earmarked for the said purposes. The district in the south east, has been proposed to be used for industrial purposes, as its situation is note quite so suitable. It is some distance from the quarter containing the public buildings and separated from the residential quarters on one side and the Molonglo River and parks on the other, besides which it is well supplied with railway communications, close to the shunting and goods' stations and not so far from the city. The area in the north, on the other hand, is more suitable for military purposes on account of the situation of the public buildings and the grouping of the remaining part of the town.

Residential Quarter.
The outskirts of the city, quietly and peacefully situated some distance from the labour localities, will be laid out for resident purposes and by means of good communications connected with the city and industrial districts.

Other districts.
Beyond the residential district proper space ought to be reserved for different kinds of large public parks, race tracks and aerodromes in places by nature adapted for the purpose.

The territory forming the criterion for the project.
In studying the elevation and contour map we find that the territory set aside for the Federal Capital does not place any obstacle in the way of a rational arrangement of the city areas for the different purposes thus mentioned, but rather invites, and even seems to be directly created for ideal solutions of the various problems here placed before the artist in town planning.

Chapter III.
The character of the plan of the city for the different parts of the same.
In casting a glance at the chief map of the proposed competition, the very character of the city plan shows not only each separate function of the various quarters but also the general nature of the ground.

The City
The business quarter itself, the city with its enormous traffic, its blocks of buildings composed of palatial buildings and situated on level ground, s characterised by broad, straight streets with arcades and regularly laid out. Here where the value of the ground will be greatest, it will be worth while to reduce the differences in level by filling up the low lying areas and gain suitable ground for building purposes. The sand and gravel necessary for this are taken from the adjoining low lying inundation area close to the river-bed north of the city, by which means simultaneously the advantage will be gained that extensive and beautiful expanses of water will be created in the centre of the city.

Pleasure City
In the pleasure city, the western extension of the city, the plan immediately shows a livelier character. Parks are laid out and the streets are more crooked; but even here it is worth while to gain some suitable building sites by means of filling up, at the same time a charming view will be obtained from Princess Parade and King Edward Embankment which have been raised on embankments.

Public Buildings.
The area south of this, the quarter where the public buildings are situated, shows at the first glance the great undulation of the ground and its general contour of hills and mounts, each one offering room for a block of buildings embedded in verdure. The quarter beyond the river, north of the city, again shows through its stiff regularity, helped up by the surroundings with its magnificent monumental structures that here must be the spot for the principle buildings of Australia, where the weal and woe of the continent is decided.

Industrial Areas.
The industrial areas, the domicile of hard work and paretical utility, are characterised in a natural way in the first instance through the long straight blocks and streets necessitated by the railway lines, and the plain unadorned arrangement of the whole.

Military Barracks.
In like manner the Military quarters are characterised by their long straight lines and their extensive parade grounds where the troops will defile at some future time.

Residential Quarters.
Finally we come to the residential quarters. Here we wish to retain the natural beauties and avoid extensive and dear construction of terraces, making the streets of a reasonable width. The general character of these parts of the city should therefore clearly show the nature of the ground. On level ground the streets are often made straight, only with such alterations in detail as may be necessitated from aesthetic points of view and general regard to comfort, whilst on undulation ground the streets will follow the slopes in such a manner that they do not become too steep and may be built and drained.

These quarters are also characterised by their parks and promenades, small plantations and play grounds and schools and other public buildings dotted here and there upon the hills to set off and give change to the picture.

Secondary Centres.
The secondary centres of the city within the residential districts near Commonwealth Avenue are each characterised by the open space in its centre to satisfy traffic requirements and accord the business premises and public buildings located here suitable frontages and surroundings, making an architecturally satisfactory arrangement possible.

In the projected competition an attempt has been made to solve the various tasks first of all in a natural manner from the hints given by Nature herself, with the use of those resources the city builder may here count upon having at his disposal. Furthermore, an attempt has been made for the principal buildings to produce both grand effects and delicate portions of the city in detail; but for all that, an attempt has always been made to avoid going too far; to keep within the limits of financial and artistic possibilities.

We must, however, consider that even if the city at its commencement, has no more than 25,000 inhabitants, it will yet at a not very distant date very likely boast of several hundreds of thousands such; and that a good plan of a city must be such as not only satisfies the requirements of the present century, but also does not place any obstacle in the way of perhaps still greater development of future centuries.

Size of Public Buildings.
With regard to the elaboration of the proposal the author must however apologize for the deficiencies that may exist in connection herewith, especially with regard to the size of the public buildings, of which, with the exception of the Houses of Parliament, nothing was stated in the programme, and concerning whose size in many instances no reliable information could be obtained. But very like these deficiencies will not exercise too great an influence on the usefulness of the project, as in many instances and exchange of position of the buildings projected may easily be effected. Concerning the public buildings the first and foremost object of the competition is to reserve sufficient and properly situated areas for the various building purposes, sufficient not only for the present time but also for the future extensions.

Width of Streets
In a like manner the opinions as to how wide the streets ought to be, vary as a matter of course, but in this connection it may be pointed out that an increase or a deduction in these measures does not appreciably affect the usefulness of the project in other directions.

Names of Streets.
A proposal for the names of streets is not part of the competition, for which reason the names put down on the map only serve as a guide to the description.

Chapter IV.
Detailed description of the various parts of the City
The different drawings of the proposed competition show best how the different essentialities may be realized, and for this purpose we give a more detailed account below. In this connection it may be pointed out, that, in order that the description does not grow too long and wearisome, we have to confine ourselves to the most important items, to the most important buildings, squares and streets, although even other things have been elaborated in detail with the amount of affection for the task.

The City
The business quarter proper consists on the whole of a square piece of land where the main streets form the diagonals and frontages of the squares, and the remaining streets to run parallel with the last mentioned. To avoid monotony and sharp angles at the corners of the diagonal streets, the streets are turned down and made of varying widths, according to the traffic requirements, and taking regard to the public buildings planned there. The principle business thoroughfare, "Commercial Street" is the diagonal street starting from "Railway Square", and at the crossing of the other diagonal street the traffic branches off both in the continuation of "Great Business Street" towards Parliament Hill, and in a main street westward towards the amusement quarter.

In the centre of the city, where the traffic converges through the diagonal streets, City Hall Square, arranged as a symmetrical square, and surrounded by public and semi-public buildings, and ornamented by monuments and arcades, opens out. Here has been place City Hall, banks and business premises, so that the square in importance corresponds to the open space in front of the Bank of England, if we want to look for a comparison with conditions in London. On the west side of the square, a quiet shelter for pedestrians, surrounded by arcades, and ornamented with fountains, has been arranged. Here place is found for magnificent arcades with different kinds of restaurants and shops. Further north, sits are found in this quarter for churches, Police Head Quarters, warehouses, shops and sundry offices, insurance companies etc. Hotels, boarding houses, and restaurants will be located in "Railway Square", and the side streets situated close to the parks, e.g. Queen Mary's Parade, King George's Embankment, and Railway Road.

Railway Square will form one of the principal centres for traffic in the city, but at the same time it will be architecturally so arranged that a stranger immediately on his arrival in the city, on leaving the station, receives an idea of the importance of the city, and gets a pleasant impression of the same, which impression will afterwards on his walks through the various parts of the city be still further improved.

Opposite the central Station, on the west side of "Railway Square" two hotels, architecturally worth of their situation and of uniform design, will be erected, and between them there opens a pretty park, crowned by the Law Courts, erected opposite the square on a mount 80 ft. high. Monuments and works of art are put up in the park, and a lake has been arranged; and in "Railway Square" itself, two splendid fountains will be erected. A first glance at the second picture on plate three shows how the place and the city will look.

The station is arranged as a through station, with the tracks lying somewhat higher than "Railway Square" so that admission to the different platforms will be gained by means of staircases from a spacious tunnel running underneath the entire system of tracks. Connected with the station proper there will be on one side a building for a parcels office and on the other the premises of the General Post Office, which have been accorded plenty of space.

The streets radiating from "Railway Square" have all handsome buildings in the background. The grandest of all streets will be the "Commercial Street" which, bordered with an avenue of skyscrapers, extends right to the white bulk of the Houses of Parliament, whose cupola, rising towards the sky, stands out against the deep green of Black Mountain. The first picture on plate 3 gives some sort of an idea of this.

Pleasure City.
Immediately connected with, and as a continuation of the city westwards there adjoins a quarter which we wish to call the "Pleasure City", because it will be most suitable to locate there theatres, music halls, concert halls, restaurants and other places of amusement. Here will also be found room for clubs and societies, as well as for hotels and boarding houses. This quarter corresponds to the district round Piccadilly and Trafalgar Square in London. The main thorough-fare in this part of the city, "Victoria Parade", stretches from City Hall Square in the east across "Melba Square" to "Federal Square" in the west, and terminates at one end with City Hall, having at the other, the National Gallery of Arts. "Federal Square" is an space open towards the south-west and open to the north, which has been planned at the western end of the Pleasure City. By wisely utilizing the elevation existing here by means of terraces, ascents, and stairs, and a large fountain and basin below, a spot of rare beauty may here be formed surrounded, as it ought to become, by museums and other monumental edifices, and ornamented with monuments, statues and other works of art. On account of the situation of the spot in relation to the various parts of the city, the amusements of the city will be concentrated here. Hither, where the finest and smartest promenades such as Park Str., Queen Alexandra Parade Victoria Parade, King Edward Embankment and Princes' Parade will converge from all parts, the smart world will come to foregather and enjoy itself.

The undulating ground west of here ought to be reserved both for an Open Air Theatre and other public buildings such as an Ice Palace, Masonic Hall, etc.

In the centre of the Pleasure City ought to be laid out two public parks, surrounded by buildings, so that even the crowded city will be provided with light and colour. From the thoroughfare north of the Pleasure City, "Princes' Parade", which runs along the Molonglo River, but will by means of high embankments be raised above the former, one can get a magnificent view on the one side across the public buildings of the National Gallery, the Cathedral and the Technical High School and on the other across the Molonglo River with surrounding Parks, behind which rise the monumental edifices of Parliament Hill and the University, and in the north-west the Governor General's residence rising, admidst its fine verdure, above the river, the Botanical Gardens, the Stadium and the green slopes of the Black Mountains. This thoroughfare will become the principal promenade, corresponding to the Londoner's Pall Mall, the Italian's Corso or the Parisian's Champs Elysees. We can only call to mind a single street corresponding to this in natural beauty, viz Princes Street, Edinburgh, which by many is considered the finest street in the world.

Municipal Buildings.
The interesting silhouette, the large hills immediately south of the city can produce ought to be still further accentuated and heightened by the larger buildings being united into uniform groups which through their situation high above the city and embedded in the refreshing verdure of the already existing forest, will greatly augment XXXXXXX  we have not far to seek but can locate there such public buildings as have to be fairly situated, but demand a quiet situation, isolated from the city by surrounding parks and plantations, such as large hospitals, schools and institutes etc., besides which, the Court of Justice and State House might easily be erected here.

Government Buildings.
The Houses of Parliament and various Government Offices ought to be planned quite centrally, but yet proudly isolated from the noisy thoroughfares. They have been erected on the horse-shoe Parliament Hill, made for the purposes, grouped around the lowlying plain and forming a monumental entity producing a magnificent effect without any counterpart in the world. Admission to the Houses of Parliament is gained by means of terraces, ascents, cascades and staircases, whilst upon the lowlying plains below, which will be architecturally laid out with avenues of trees and plantations, an extensive lake will be laid out, which in its vast surface will mirror the white bulk of the Houses of Parliament with its golden kupola and shall further heighten the effect of the finest edifice of the continent. On the terraces and slopes many choice spots are to be found for various kinds of monuments and works of art. To the west of Parliament Hill and the Pleasure City is located the University and Technical High School, beautifully situated close to the river and having a boat-house together with sporting and cricket grounds.

Central parks and plantations.
Along the river, on the lowlying areas, are the natural spots for parks and plantations, sporting grounds, botanical and Zoological gardens, restaurants etc.

The central quarters and areas just mentioned form the kernel of the city, beyond which the residential quarters, military barracks, industrial establishments are laid out.

Governor General's Residence.
The Governor General's Palace ought to be located upon the most attractive spot from a residential point of view, to wit, the spacious river girt peninsular rising 80 ft. above the river west of Parliament Hill and the University.

Here the Governor General's Palace proudly isolated from the din of the city, will rise above the adjoining parks and city-sections. The large peninsular is well suited for a park, sporting and pleasure grounds attached to the palace and possess charming walks along the tree-clad river-banks.

The Palace itself, where the sough from the deep forests of the Black Mountains blends with the murmur from the waterfalls of the river, will get an exceptional situation with a most magnificent view across the city, with the botanical gardens in the foreground. The picture on plate 3 taken from this point will give some idea of this.

Residential quarters proper.
The residential quarters proper are grouped in a natural manner following the ground along a circular road, Commonwealth Avenue, which unites the whole and form an ellipse with axes 12 and 14,000 feet long, in which the diagonal road through the City, The Commercial Street, forms the main axes and its terminals Railway Square and Cook's Corner close to Parliament Hill not only on paper, but also in reality correspond to the foci. The quarters round about Commonwealth Avenue are grouped around certain secondary city-centres where the streets radiating from the city intersect this avenue.

Upon these secondary city centres the public buildings of these quarters, e.g. Market Halls, Banks, Shops, Schools, Churches, etc. are concentrated, placed around the traffic centres here, which are designated after the Capitals of the different Colonies.

Each of these open places has been accorded a special character necessitated by the condition of traffic the territory or the buildings placed there. They have been given a quiet character whilst at the same time the traffic is carried on in the most satisfactory manner. Thus by means of these open spaces side by side with the thoroughfares proper, quiet, isolated oases are formed where pedestrians can take shelter, and where plantations of trees may be laid out, and fountains and statues placed with advantage.

As a detailed description of these open spaces is lengthy, we shall let the detail drawings of the proposal explain the same.

Towards the south west where the principal residential quarters might be located on account of the situation and the nature of the territory, an arched avenue, "Horse Shoe Bend", has been located round a glen laid out as a Park, and near this avenue the better class detached houses surrounded by large gardens and grounds might be erected. The character of the different residential districts has also been settled by nature. On level ground the streets will be straight and in the hilly areas they will have to follow the changes in the ground, so that no restraint is placed upon nature, and in order that the building sites become suitable for building purposes and easy ton drain. The direction of the streets, their width and dip are dictated in every separate case by the traffic or architectural considerations.

In the extreme west, separated from the Governor General's peninsula through the Molonglo River and a string of parks, a spot has ben marked by way of proposal for a cemetery, as the areas appears to be suitable for this purpose, and is quietly and peacefully situated alongside the great traffic arteries. Even in planning the cemetery Nature herself has had to be the principal standard. The burial ground has been adapted to the territory, and space has been found for a Mortuary Chapel and Crematorium, a Cinerarium and Mausoleums.

Military Barracks.
Right in the north, not far from Parliament Hill there are vast, extensive plains particularly suitable on account of territory and situation, for the different military purposes; military colleges, barracks and necessary offices, parade grounds, rifle ranges and exercise grounds as well as garrison church, officers' mess etc. The railway cuts the plain into two parts connected with a viaduct. Near the railway a Good Station for the northern parts of the city is laid out, and embarcation quays for moving large masses of troops to and from the city.

Race Tracks and Aerodrome.
Further out in the same direction appears to be the right spot for large Race Track and an Aerodrome.

Industrial Districts.
The other large plain areas belonging to the city is situated in the south west, down by the river and the railway shunting yards. By means of tramways and railways it is connected with the city and the different residential districts but yet isolated from the rest of the town through the river and parks and railway station. If this area be protected against inundations by means of a high embankment used as a road, it will form an ideal situation for industrial purposes on account of its position, its level ground, and the facility with which railway lines can be put down here. The Government Workshops and Factories are located in the best place here. Behind these, on the great plain towards the south-west private industries may be allowed to develop. Not far from here excellent sites for the Central Electric Power Station, Goods Station, Central Market Hall, Slaughter House, Gas Works and Railway Marshalling Yards has been found.

Central Parks and Plantations.
Besides the planation proposed within and near the city proper and the pleasure city, Nature offers in the first instance the centrally situated areas and those along the river lying too low to be built upon. Parks and plantations located here will look very pretty and charming, as they may be surveyed from the hills and the terraced streets of "Princess' Parade" and "King George's Embankment", so that even others than those walking in the parks get an opportunity of enjoying their refreshing verdure.

If we follow the river from the city limits in the east, we find first of all that the industrial and station areas have been separated from the rest of the city through large parks with cricket lawns.

Zoological Gardens.
Further down the river we come ton area upon both sides of the river which on account of its isolated situation, its partly undulating territory, and the water of the river provides comfort for aquatic animals and sea-birds, is especially suitable for a Zoological Garden. The latter is separated on its eastern side from the residential districts by means of a park and from the city through the railway station.

Exhibition Grounds
North of here we find an elongated, fairly level area, very suitable for Agricultural Shows and Industrial Exhibitions, where a special railway station has been laid out for the purpose.

Widening the River
On the west side of the railway it is proposed to dig out and widen the river, both for getting the necessary filling material for raising certain parts of the city and for creating in the centre of the city extensive watering mirrors where brilliant regattas and such like are to be held. By this means a suitable place for a large and fine river-girt restaurant will be obtained.

If we continue along the river we come to Parliament Hill, surrounded by a row of magnificent parks. The same thing meets us on the low land west of the University.

Botanical Gardens.
Below the Governor's Palace appears to be the right spot for laying out the Botanical Gardens.

Other Parks.
Besides these parks along the river there is proposed a belt of parks extending in the form of an arch from the river close to the Governor General's Palace through the residential districts in the south west down towards the Central Station. The hilly areas of Black Mountain, Ainslie and the hilly districts in the south, which are not very suitable for building purposes, should also be utilized for parks, besides which both up and down the river there might be some areas for public parks. Finally there extends a belt of plantations across the hills south and south-west of the city, around the public buildings proposed upon the hills here.

Sport and other Grounds.
The needs of sport and athletics have been well cared for in the competition.

The Stadium has been given a very fair position, easily accessible close to a tramway junction on Commonwealth Avenue. Near the University and Botanical Gardens on the slope of Black Mountain, sufficient ground has been reserved for this purpose, and close to this, place his been found for several large Hotels architecturally designed and arranged.

Other Sport Grounds
Round about the residential districts and in the parks as well as near the Technical High School and the University, a number of sport and athletic grounds besides foot-ball and cricket lawns has been found.

The Molonglo river offers a splendid opportunity for rowing in consideration of this, the University and Technical Schools have been place near the river and provided with boat houses.

Chapter V.
Transito - Technical Views.

Since the functions and position of the different parts of the city have been fixed, we have now to connect the same properly and in a natural manner by means of good communications such as railways, tramways and streets.

Main-line Railways.
The proposed railway, running chiefly from north to south, is laid out in a natural manner with a central station near the city, a good station with loading embankments and marshalling yard in the south east, close to the industrial districts, and a smaller goods station together with Military embarkation quays for the transport of troops in the north. In this connection room ought to be made both for main-lines and goods-lines, as well as for local-lines.

At some future period, when the Capital has grown to larger dimensions it will not be enough to be served with easy communications between the different parts of the city, and for excursions to the surrounding districts but some rapid local-lines for passenger-traffic to the outlying districts, corresponding to the American elevated railways and the underground railways of European cities, will also be wanted. Our initial duty of course is only to reserve space for these future means of communication; not to build them at once. The two local-lines running right through the area and indicated in the competition, are about the only ones that may be questioned on account of the nature of the ground. One of them is planned along side the Main-line, with stopping stations at a distance of about 4,000 feet from each other, and located near the principal thoroughfares. Through the latter rapid transit is made possible, not only for the crowds of work people to and from the residential districts, but also for the traffic to future suburbs in the south west, and mainly to the Central Exhibition Grounds, ad the Race-track and Aerodrome in the north. Besides this line space ought to be reserved for another local line intended for passenger traffic in south-western direction, following the course of the river. This latter line will, when required at a not very distant date, fulfil the enormous traffic requirements that will make themselves felt from different parts of the city and the pleasure city out to the beautiful environments along the Molonglo River such as Yarrolumla Home Stead, Duntroon etc. as well as to the cemetery and industrial districts.

Railway arrangements.
The laying out of the railway has been planned on the following main principle.

For transito-technical reasons and in order to avoid accidents, no railway lines except those for the industrial districts must be allowed to cross any streets on the same level as the latter. With regard to the requirements of fresh air and light for passengers the railways ought further more not to be run in tunnels. As elevated railways are ugly and disfiguring, this system is not to be recommended. The conclusion is that the railways should be run in open courseways sunk below street level when crossing the latter. This system is the cheapest, handsomest and healthiest.

For transito-technical reasons different kinds of railway-lines such as goods tracks, mainlines and local lines must not intersect each other on the same level, but pass over or below each other.

Main streets.
From the outer traffic centres in the city viz. Railway Square, Tasman Corner, Federal Corner, Cooks Corner and Torris Corner, radial streets ought to run directly and naturally towards the residential districts round about in all directions. Each of these radial streets might afterwards branch out into two or more to pick up the traffic from the different parts of the residential districts, and thus negotiate the main portion of the most important daily traffic viz. in the mornings from the residential districts to the city and after the days work back in the same direction. At right angles to this latter a considerable amount of traffic will also develope viz. between the different residential districts themselves, and from the latter to and from the industrial districts for this purpose a large thoroughfare is needed at about right angles to the radial streets, and for this purpose we have not far to seek, as the circular road uniting the whole, Commonwealth avenue, answers the purpose. Near the latter are situated the different residential centres, the Technical High School and University, the Barracks, several sport grounds and the industrial district. In the southwest there is furthermore needed another secondary circular road with appurtenant radial streets for the large residential districts, which has here been planned on territory particularly suited for the purpose. Otherwise the main thoroughfare often run at the foot of the slopes, collecting the traffic from the adjoining residential district.

Most of the main thoroughfares ought of course to have tramways running along them, as such streets and tramways generally have common functions. But yet it is not advisable to have tramways in all main thoroughfares, as some suitably located promenades are also needed, undisturbed by the rattle and din of the trams.

Tramway lines.
When a city like this is being planned from the beginning the tramway system can be arranged in a rational and proper manner. The tramway system ought to follow the natural laws for traffic, and this is illustrated on the accompanying sketch plan. In the plan a system of twelve tramway lines is proposed, viz.:

Right radial lines (N:r 1 to 8) all of them starting at on end of the town and running the nearest way to the centre, thence continuing in the opposite direction; further a circular line proper (N:r 9) in Commonwealth Avenue the line (N:r 10) in the figure 8 through both the City and to large parts of Commonwealth Avenue; one circular line (N:r 11) through the City and the large residential district in the south west; and finally an inner circular line (N:r 12) through the City and running to the Public Buildings south of the City. Through this system 11 lines will pass City Hall Square, 9 lines Railway Square and 7 lines Melba and Federal Squares, whilst 2 to 5 lines are passing the various junctions of Commonwealth Avenue. From this, will be seen that the tramway traffic is plentifully distributed according to the requirements of the different places. The streets with tramways running through them are laid out with plantations along the tracks and lawns between them thus preventing any other traffic from using this space, as hereby the speed of the cars may be considerably increased without any risk of accidents, whereby their usefulness is greatly augmented for the same reasons. The side streets with their tramway passages intersecting the tramlines are located fairly widely apart the stopping places for the cars have consequently on the various junctions been arranged in such a manner that all the lines meeting there are running so, that they have a common stopping place with refuges. This is the only proper way to manage the change from one car to another conveniently for the passengers. At the same time the rest of the traffic will be disturbed in an natural way round the island formed by the refuges at the crossings. This is an improvement on the old faulty system of the tramway lines intersecting each other at the crossings with consequent great discomfort for the passengers, as well as the difficulty in regulating the traffic and frequent accidents.

At places where large thoroughfares with tramways intersect each other, one of the streets ought, for similar reasons, as well as for obtaining a background for the street, to be some what shifted aside, enabling the laying out of refuges in the direction of the straight street. These junctions are in this connection formed into open spaces with a view to erecting at such traffic centres shops, market halls, churches, and other public buildings which still further attract traffic.

Chapter VI.
Aesthetical Points of View.

The strength gradually crystallized in the art of town planning during the last twenty years have made themselves felt in the Aesthetical elaboration of the project in the same way as from the transit points of view, and these thoughts have at last found a perfect expression at the Town Planning Congress held in London in 1910. With regard to these general points of view we beg to refer to the following bibliography.

Garden city Association, Town Planning in Theory and Practice, 1 s., and other publications, including Garden Cities and town planning (formerly the Garden City) 1 d. monthly.

Howard, Ebenezer, Garden Cities of To-morrow, London Sonnenschein.

Hurd, Richard M., Principles of City Land Values, New York 1903.

Town Planning and Modern Architecture at the Hampstead Garden Suburb.

Triggs, Inigo, Town Planning, Past, Present and Possible London, Methuen.

Unwin, Raymond, Town Planning in Practice. An introduction to the art of designing cities and suburbs. 21/- T. Fischer Unwins.

Municipal Affairs, March 1898, December 1899, Fall Issue 1901, New York.

Benoit-Levy, Georges, Publications of the French Garden City Association.

" La Ville et son Image, Editions des Cites-Jardins de France, Paris.

Brinkman, E.A. Platz und Monument. Berlin N. Vasmuth 1908.

Eberatedt, Rud.: Die Stadtische Rodenparzellierung in England und ihre Vergleichung mit deutschen Einrichtungen. Berlin, Carl Heymans Verlag, 1908.

Gross Berlin Vettbewerb. Ernst Wasmuth, Berlin 1911.

Sitte Camillo, Der Stadtenbau nach seinen kunstleriache Grundsatzen. Wien, 1909, C. Graeser & C:o.

Stubben, J. Oberbaurat, Der Stadtebau (Handbuch der Architektur IV. 9/- Stuttgart 1907.

Der Stadtebau, Monatschrift, Berlin E. Vasmuth 1904-1911.

Stadtbauliche Vortrage, Berlin, W. Ernst & Son 1908-1911. Band I - IV.

We furthermore refer to the Bibliography contained in the above mentioned work by Unwin. In Sweden and Finland several interesting town planning competitions have been held and other valuable plans of city elaborated and these have been fully distributed in the leading Technical Journals of the respective countries, viz. Teknia Tidskrift and Teknikern.

In planning a modern city the plan as a whole and in detail has to be drawn in a manner fully satisfying the sense of beauty. We can distinguish three main points, where the artistic element must make itself very much felt in town planning, viz. in the general location of the city quarters, and public buildings. There grouping and distribution with regard to the effect of the city as a whole and to the bulk and silhouette of the buildings; then the laying out of open spaces such as traffic centres; open and close squares, architectural spaces and the arrangement of parks and plantations &c., and finally the laying out of the streets with regard to their width, backgrounds and plantations &c.

General distributions of City Quarters Buildings from aesthetical Points of view.
The distribution and grouping of the City quarters and Public Buildings from an aesthetical point of view goes hand in hand with the practical points of view. The concentration of the work and bustle of the "City" is marked by its closely built houses and the appearance is heightened and constructed by the skyscrapers, by the cupolas of the arcades and the church steeples, the whole forming a dense forest of building and turrets. Of still greater importance is the location and grouping of shore parts of the city, especially intended for public buildings, both Government and municipal. In consideration of their silhouette effect, they ought to be located upon elevated points, and so grouped that the different buildings through their situation more or less close to each other augment and increase the impression they might be able to effect in standing detached from each other. It is just through such a combination as upon Parliament Hill and the hills south of the city that the grandest effect can be obtained.

As regards finally the residential districts even here we have need of certain public buildings which, where such can be done from practical reasons, here too, ought to be united into biggish blocks to give the eye something to rest upon, and setting off these parts of the town, whose character has otherwise been indicated in an natural manner by the territory and the verdure.

Squares and other open spaces.
There are on the whole two kinds of squares which may however, be combined with each other in a greater or lesser degree. The open spaces arise either in the form of traffic, centres, in order to make room for the traffic, concentrated from several streets upon one point or they are laid out as quiet architectural places to form a setting for more prominent buildings. Most of the traffic centres arise at the tramway junctions (in the City and at Commonwealth Avenue etc.), and these open spaces have chiefly been laid out with regard to the traffic requirements. But it is not impossible to effect satisfactory arrangements of the same from a beauty point of view. On the contrary, as is shown by the plan, really well-thought traffic centres are given a harmonious and attractive form. At every such traffic centre at least some part of the same ought to be located at the side of the through traffic, forming a shelter for pedestrians. Through arcades and such like these spaces are to a certain extent made self contained, and by planning them more or less regularly, they will obtain a monumental or picturesque character.

The architectural squares pure and simple (e.g.) on both sides of the Houses of Parliament, which are laid out as monumental squares, have like the combined architectural and traffic centres (Federal Square and Railway Square been previously described in detail.

Laying out of streets.
Finally as regards the laying out of streets, the arrangement as to direction, which, bends, backgrounds and other details are a part of town planning which must not be neglected in any way.

For the convenience of the traffic the most important thoroughfare ought to be made very wide and straight but we must not neglect to give these thoroughfares imposing backgrounds and to vary their appearance by laying out the sides of the streets in different ways., By way of example it may be mentioned how an otherwise stiff looking street like "Commercial Street" must at the same time make a grand and interesting impression through the skyscrapers along the skies, the block of building on Parliament Hill in the background and through the laying out backgrounds of the adjoining by-streets, as well as through locating here such buildings as City Hall and the Arcades. The wide streets are also made cosy through avenues of trees and flower beds. Further more, between the tramway rails there ought to be laid out lawns to avoid the clouds of dust otherwise chased up by the cars. The width of the street ought further to be in due proportion to its length and background. The perspective is most frequently rounded off by the public building on some hill at or beyond the end of the street but even the pretty silhouettes of the surrounding mountains have often been utilized in elaborating the plan. The streets have been so located in such a manner in the territory as to give the streets attractive concave profiles. Where the territories convex, the street has been given a bend, or shifted to one side or the other so as to round off the perspective at the highest point.

Profiles of Streets
Considering that the Federal Capital of Australia is expected bye and bye to become a big city the street have been laid out rather wide, but varying according to the amount of traffic taken regard to the architectural arrangement of the street.

In order to get some shade for pedestrians near the wide business streets, arcades ought to be erected along the buildings to the greatest possible extent. These arcades which, in order to be erected uniformly, ought preferably to be built of stone, and by the municipality may either be erected outside the buildings, forming pleasant terraces for proper living on the first floor, such has been proposed in Commercial Street and others, or also be incorporated in the buildings as has been proposed in Railway Square.

Residential Streets.
The residential streets ought to be slightly narrow as a wide street easily looks bleak and becomes unpleasant through wind and dust. For laying out the side walks, the normal American type with green lawns between the wide walk proper, and the drive is to be very much recommended.

Chapter VII.
Method of building.

An important factor in town planning are the different building statues in force. It is not well to have the same statutes or enactments for different parts of the city as they have very different functions. There must therefore be certain building enactments for the city, quite different ones for the industrial districts, and finally building enterprise in the residential districts must be regulated by means of enactments adapted to their requirements.

The City and its skyscrapers.
The life and bustle of the town is concentrated in the City and the amusement quarter. Here the ground will be most valuable, and the buildings ought to be placed close to each other and to be fairly high, let us say 5 stories. The type of building which has been developed in the large American Cities and generally goes under the name of "Skyscraper", has undoubtedly great advantages for a practical point of view being used for business and office purposes. Anyone who has been in the large American Cities cannot get rid of the idea that this style of building is the right thing for the right purpose. Yet it is wrong to permit such madness as in America, and allow the erection of such high buildings close to each other and with such awful gable ends. The form of skyscraper erection of late in New York is the most attractive, both practically and aesthetically, mainly with the bulk of the building carried to a reasonable height and with a skyscraper rising from the latter in the shape of a tower, intended for offices running around a central hall with elevators and staircases. Buildings of this type are not only not disfiguring, but they produce rather an exceptional and grand effect and are aesthetically excellent, as they heighten the effect of the compact masses, a well needed change in the otherwise rather monotonous perspective of the business street. The best location for those skyscrapers seems to be at the corners of the blocks, chiefly along Commercial Street.

As to how these avenues of skyscrapers are going to look, we can give an idea from the picture of Commercial Street, and the view from the Governor-General's Palace, as illustrated in plate 3.

Building enactments facilitating the erection and upkeep of Arcades for the comfort of the public, either incorporated in the building along the streets or place outside the same ought to be introduced.

Laying out and Planing of Court Yards.
Such ought to be laid out even in the city. Some building by laws ought to be enacted that the interior portions of the building blocks are as a rule not to be built upon, but laid out and planted, giving well needed colour and cosiness to this domicile of labour. Only in certain cases should exceptions be made for special buildings, and this should be done by a Committee appointed for this purpose.

Industrial districts.
The building by laws for the industrial district must be less stringent, and in the first instance adapted to practical requirements.

Residential districts.
It is of very great importance by-laws be enacted for the residential areas prohibiting an unhealthy or ugly style of building. The greatest hall of the residential districts might be used for attached houses nor does the division of the building rights offer any difficulty to the utilization for such purposes even in irregular blocks. Certain residential districts, especially those situated on level ground, may be based and built upon according to the customary English and American style of one house one family. The value of the building sites within residential areas in a town like this is chiefly formed by the expenditure of the laying out of streets, sewerage and is divided between the sites. As this expenditure is as nearly as possible proportionate to the frontage of every site, it is clear that this style of building on account of the small width of the sites towards the street corresponds to a proportionally low purchase price of the site even the building may be erected cheaper when they have two joint walls, for which reason this style of building comes much cheaper. Even with regard to cosiness it has great advantages. In the first instance it is suitable for residential areas where expense is one of the chief factors even irregular blocks may easily be used for such a style of building, in which connection such as laying out and arrangement of building blocks as have been carried out in Hampstead Garden - suburb, and which has been described in a book especially written about it and included in the previously mentioned bibliography are to be warmly recommended. The inner section of large irregular blocks may in such cases be made use of for small parks and childrens playgrounds.

There ought to be a by-law for all the residential districts that the buildings are to stand back from the street, separated from the latter through a front garden. Further by-laws ought to be enacted according to which on each side only a certain portion of the same may be built upon whilst the rest is to be used as a garden.

Chapter VIII.
Plans and views of well known Cities, brought together in plate 4, compound with different parts of the competition

Fig. N:r 1.
Shows a birdseye view of an old historical town, where as in the competition for the Federal Capital of Australia, the thoroughfares radiate from the centre of the XXXX the City, towards a circular road (Commonwealth Avenue) uniting the whole.

Fig. N:r 2.
Shows how beautiful a park along the river may look and how nicely a railway may be concealed by trees on the bans as on corresponding positions of the Molonglo river.

Fig. N:r 3
Shows the University Edifice with plantations in front. Compare University on plate 3.

Fig. N:r 4
Shows a beautiful shore terrace with plantations similar to the River-restaurant in the competition.

Fig. N:r 5.
(Bourke Street) 24, 26, 41, 26 show perspectives of straight streets with public streets in the background. Several of the radial streets on the plan e.g.

Denman Road, Hopetown Road, Commercial street, Parliament Parade, show similar arrangement.

Picture 46 however shows a somewhat faulty arrangement, as the farthest part has been given a convex instead of a concave profile, so much so that the building in the background creeps down into instead of rising out of the perspective as -

Fig. N:r 6, 13, 19, 9, & 16
show how beautiful it looks when public buildings in the centre of the town, as in the competition, through water and plantations have plenty of space in front, so that the buildings may be mostly surveyed from several points.

Fig. N:r 7, 18 & 12
are examples of beautiful plantations of reasonable size in the centre of the town, corresponding to the two plantations surrounded by blocks of buildings right in the centre of the pleasure-city in the competition.

Fig. N:r 10, 17, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 40, 42, 44, 47, 49, 51, & 52,
are examples of mostly well laid out, closed and monumental unplanted open spaces, with fountains, statues and monuments erected upon them. The competition can show the great number of such open spaces which may be compared with them in one respect or another, although they have in no wise been copied. Such places as may seem worthy of consideration in detail are, for example, Alexandra Square, Brisbane Square, Sydney Square, Hobart Square, East Melbourne Square, West Melbourne Square, Adelaide Place, Perth Square, Railway Square, Tasman Corner Federal Square, Cooks Corner, Torres, Corner, Melba Square, City Hall Square &c.

Fig. N:r 13.
is an example of a so to say artificial street background formed by arcades. Compare the eastern and western ends of Melba Square.

Fig. N:r 14
shows a beautiful example of how different edifices through a block of buildings erected upon arches uniting them may produce architectural unity.

Fig. N:r 15
shows the Molonglo River at the souther point of the Governor General's Peninsula, with its waterfall and some Dam structures below a bridge.

Fig. N:r 8
is an example of semi-detailed one-family houses in the residential districts.

Fig. N:r 20, 21,
shows the Capital in Washington, from which it will be seen how advantageous a raised position is for a building of this kind; but it shows at the same time how unsatisfactorily the framings has otherwise been arranged, without any connection with the surroundings or privacy of the whole, but with open ports in all directions, and with a block of buildings of pointed form, difficult of being built upon. The houses of Parliament in the Federal Capital of Australia would according to the plan be very much more imposingly and architecturally better laid out if carried out, with its side buildings, on the line of the plan.

Fig. N:r 22,
Melbourne, Central Part of the City. This as well as other plans have been drawn on the same scale as the chief map of the competition and included by way of comparison. There are several good points, such as the location of the State House, etc., but the plan with its severe regularity, which would not take the territory into consideration betrays a past stage of the art of town-planning.

Fig. N:r 23
a portion of the City of London, shows many very beautiful portions of the town, especially the locality near the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey, and may serve as a comparison with the competition with regard to the width of streets etc., in which connection it must however be observed that the London Streets as a rule are too narrow for its requirements, but at the same time that London is the largest city in the world with the greatest amount of traffic.

Fig. N:r 24, 26
show Place de la Concorde in Paris, one of the most monumental squares in the world; there are certain points of comparison in the competition such as Railway Square, which shows, however, a finer centre, located upon a height of 70 feet above the square. Another grouping of an open place that may be compared with are the Houses of Parliament with adjoining Government Offices and the Prime Minister's Residence opposite, where, however a still more magnificent effect is obtained by the buildings on Parliament Hill lying 50 to 70 feet above the lower lying park-like place, which, both on account of the territory and in order to correspond to the dimensions in height of the Parliament Hill the buildings has been made of an enormous size.

Fig. N:r 33, 41,
are fine examples of street arcades of the kind indicated near Railway Square on Plate 3. Another way of planning street arcades which better harmonize with the traditional style of buildings in Australia has amongst other things been indicated in Commercial Street and is shown on the same plate.

Fig. N:r 34
is an example of how to make proper use of a piece of sculpture on ground sloping towards a lake or basin, and crowned by a block of buildings. The laying of the buildings on this spot (the St. Louis Exhibition of 1904) was certainly not very well carried out, but it may yet give an idea of the far grander arrangement of Australasia Gardens and Parliament Hill.

Fig. N:r 35
The Stadium of Athens, built of solid white marble and accommodating 70,000 persons, shows a building of this kind we may well initiate.

Fig. N:r 43
The Acropolis, Athens, shows how the ancient Greeks at one time the most beauty-loving people in the world, understood to place their principal public buildings monumentally, rising towards heavens high above the rest of the city.

Fig. N:r 37
Genoa, the Cemetery shows one of the finest and best located places of this kind laid out. Quite different, yet equally beautiful may become the future cemetery of the competition.

Fig. N:r 38
shows an exceptionally fortunate way of laying out a park at the foot of a building standing on an eminence.

Fig. N:r 48
shows an ancient open-air theatre after a Greek model, which may be compared with the open-air theatre by the Molonglo River.

Fig. N:r 39
gives a good idea of how the splendidly situated and arcade girt parliament gardens may be laid out and planted with bushes and statues and works of art set out there.

Fig. N:r 45
shows the mountain railway proposed up to the monastic establishment on Red HIll.

Fig. N:r 53
shows a smaller park, but reminds us of Parliament Hill and Australasian Gardens with regard to the territory.

Fig. N:r 50
shows an example of how a skyscraper may be built attractively. In this case they seem, however, to have gone too far, as the lower buildings is already 10 stories high, and the skyscraper proper with its 45 stories rises to a height of 75 feet, but then this building is the only one of its kind in the world.

Fig. N:r 49, 51
show a couple of magnificent college buildings from ancient Oxford, which may perhaps be of interest when erecting similar buildings in the Federal Capital of Australia.

Chapter IX.
Sewerage system and Sanitary arrangements.
In the competition programme the conditions of competition certainly do not direct carrying out of any proposal for sewerage, but as afterwards in article 10 of the requirements, some statements regarding sewerage are given and in article 12 it is set out that "The Design must indicate a scheme for the interception and disposal of storm-water discharging within the 'city-area', the following explanation concerning the sewerage system has for this reason been given in connection with the town planning competition, as far as has been possible on account of the information supplied in the programme on Plate 5 it has been indicated how the sewerage system on the whole may be arranged for the Federal Capital, and the following detailed information on the subject may be supplied.

Starting Point
In "Historical and Introductory" we certainly find that the population of the town at the beginning may be estimated to amount to 25,000, but as it is at the same time stated that within a period of 100 years the town will probably have a population of from 2 to 300,000 inhabitants, it is obvious that a plan suitable for the conditions, whether it concerns the carrying out of the plan of the town or the sewerage must be based upon a larger future population. The area included on the contour map and therefore intended for planning, accommodates from 1 to 200,000 people, depending upon the building by-laws that may be enacted, i.e. upon the size of the building plots and to what extent semi-detached houses may be erected. For the sewerage a population of about 200,000 within the area ought to be taken as a basis but this figure will otherwise exercise only very slight influence upon the choice of a system and the main features of a sewerage system.

Statements in programme.
A hygienically satisfactory system must be planned with a thought of the sanitary claims both within and without the town. For this reason the conditions of competition continue to state that the sewerage-water has to be carried to some so called "Treatment works", situated 6 miles west of Camp Hill Trigonometrical station, near the river and at a height of 1800 feet, the sewerage from the town having to be delivered by gravitation at the spot just mentioned. The drains are calculated to follow the windings of the river and to be laid down with a proper dip. The sewerage has then to be pumped u from the towns lowlying cesspools to the upper end of the afore mentioned sewerage, from which the sewerage afterwards runs to the XXX treatment works.

Dams above the river are a "sine qua non" for regulating the water level within the town-area in such a manner as to prevent the inundations hitherto occurring on certain occasions. By means of those dams there will be obtained above the river a reservoir enabling a minimum of 20 cubic-feet of water per second to be passed through all the year round. Before the town has grown sufficient for the sewerage from the houses to fully correspond in quantity to the larger dimensions of the drains laid down in consideration of future development, periodical flushing of these drains may be necessary, and in that case the flushing may be effected by allowing the river water from the previously mentioned higher lying part of the river to run in.

Chief Causes of Competition

Choice of system. Drainage and sewerage systems may as is well known, be calculated and carried out according to the following different systems. Either in such a manner that they are capable of receiving both rain water from the streets and building areas and the so called sewage from kitchens and yards "storm water" being allow to run into the river through special wells, or in such a manner that they only receive the sewage, whilst the rainwater is carried off in a separate, open or closed drainage system. In a former case the sewerage is said to be on the combined system. In the latter case on the separate system. On a case like this where the sewage must be pumped, and where such large quantities of sewage as 100 gallons per person a day are to be received according to the programme and where other drainage solely intended for sewage therefore grow to considerable dimensions, the working expenses for both pumping and purifying sewage will be much cheaper with a separate system. As this system is also from a hygienic point of view more advantageous with regard to the small flow of water in the river, as otherwise difficulties easily arise in regard to the reliable working of the Treatment Works, the separate method for carrying off the sewage is here proposed. For draining off the rainwater open gutters and ditches may then be used in such of the outskirts where this can be done without inconvenience, and otherwise underground rainwater drains will be laid down, running the nearest way to, and opening into, the river or to the three smaller water-courses which have more or less been retained in the competition. As an alternative the drains for sewage and rain-water for the interior, most densely built part of the town, the "City", may be united into one drain. The dimensions of the main drains may therefore be calculated only for sewage from the area built upon.

The dips are taken so that a minimum velocity of 2 feet is obtained in case of the consumption of water of 100 gallons per person and day, which velocity for the sake of self-cleaning.

The sewage is intercepted by means of two main drains along the river which, at Torres Corner, are united into one. This main sewer then continues along "King George's and King Edward's Embankments" to Federal Square, where by means of a syphon drain it is carried down under the river to enable the drainage of the low-lying districts round the University. The sewer continues to a point in a northern part of the Botanical Gardens, where a pumping station will be erected. Just before this, at Perth Square, a main sewer coming from the south-western parts of the town, and which is carried down under the river by means of syphons, joins. The main line sewers are calculated at their starting point on the low-lying district in the extreme east to be seven feet below the surface of the ground, i.e. at a height of 1800 feet. After this they run with dips of 1:900, 1:1000, 1:1500, 1:2500, and 1:3000 (as will be seen from the drawing) to the pumping station, where the sewers are at a height of 1800 feet. Here the sewage is pumped to a height of 40 feet, which ought to be sufficient to carry off the water in a sewer with an average dip of 1:2000 running along the windings of the river to the proposed Treatment Works. Main sewers, dips and heights have been given in the competition drawing, and in so doing proper allowance for loss of gravitation in passing the syphon sewers has been made.

The authors of the proposal, who have set to work with zeal and interest for their task, are convinced that the Federal Capital built in pursuance of the principles and main clause in the proposal will be a blessing to Australia and her inhabitants now and hereafter. 

Selected, transcribed, edited, provided with headnotes, and formatted as a web document by John W. Reps, Professor Emeritus, Department of City and Regional Planning, West Sibley Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. Tel: (607) 255-5391, Fax: (607) 255-6681, E-mail: 
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